Present perfect continuous

Formación del "present perfect continuous"

El "present perfect continuous" está compuesto por dos elementos: el "present perfect" del verbo 'to be' (have/has been) y el "present participle" del verbo principal (raíz+ing)

Sujeto +has/have been +raíz+ing
She has been swimming

Afirmativa: She has been / She's been running.
Negativa: She hasn't been running.
Interrogativa : Has she been running?
Interrogativa negativa: Hasn't she been running?

Ejemplo: "present perfect continuous", to live
Afirmativa Negativa Interrogativa
I have been living I haven't been living Have I been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
He, she, it has been living He hasn't been living Has she been living?
We have been living We haven't been living Have we been living?
You have been living You haven't been living Have you been living?
They have been living They haven't been living Have they been living?

Funciones del "present perfect continuous"

El "present perfect continuous" se refiere a un periodo temporal inespecífico situado entre el pasado y el presente. El hablante se refiere a algo que empezó y que puede no haber concluido en ese periodo de tiempo. Le interesa tanto el proceso como el resultado, y es posible que dicho proceso acabe de terminar o que aún no haya finalizado.

Acciones iniciadas en el pasado y que continúan ocurriendo en el presente

She has been waiting for you all day (= todavía está esperando).
I've been working on this report since eight o'clock this morning (= todavía no lo he terminado).
They have been travelling since last October (= todavía no han vuelto).

Acciones que acaban de concluir y de las que nos interesan sus resultados

She has been cooking since last night (= y la comida preparada tiene un aspecto delicioso).
It's been raining (= y las calles aún están mojadas).
Someone's been eating my chips (= quedan la mitad).

Verbos sin formas progresivas

Con verbos que no suelen utilizar la forma progresiva, empleamos el "present perfect". Por ejemplo: I've wanted to visit China for years.
She's known Robert since she was a child.
I've hated that music since I first heard it.
I've heard a lot about you recently.
We've understood everything.
we've heard this morning.